Cervical cancer (cervical) or carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the number two cancer killer of women in the world after breast cancer. In Indonesia, even cervical cancer ranks first. Cervical cancer that has entered into an advanced stage often leads to death within a relatively quick period of time.
Cervix or uterus / cervix is the lower end of the uterus that protrudes into copulation canal (vagina). Cervical cancer develops gradually, but progressively. The process begins with the onset of cancer cells mutate and evolve into dysplastic cells resulting in epithelial abnormalities called dysplasia. Starting from mild dysplasia, dysplasia is, severe dysplasia, and eventually became carcinoma in-situ(KIS), then expand again to invasive carcinoma. Degree of dysplasia and KIS is also known as pre-cancerous. From dysplasia to carcinoma in-situ may take 1-7 years, whereas carcinoma in-situ to invasive carcinoma ranging from 3-20 years.
There are several factors that can increase the risk of cervical cancer, among otherare:
A. Sex at a young age or marriage at a young age
These factors are major risk factors. The younger a woman to have sex, the greater the risk for cervical cancer. Based on research by experts, women who have sex at age less than 17 years have a risk three times greater than those married at age over 20 years.
2. Multiple sexual partners
Sexual behavior in the form of mutually sex partners increases the transmission of venereal disease. Borne diseases such as human papilloma virus (HPV) has been shown to increase the incidence of cervical cancer, penis and vulva. Risk of cervical cancer to be 10-fold in women who have sexual partners 6 people or more. In addition, herpes simplex virus type-2 can be co-factors.
Women smokers have two times greater risk of developing cervical cancer than women who do not smoke. Research has shown that cervical mucus in women smokers contains nicotine and other substances present in cigarettes. These substances will reduce cervical resistance in addition to co-carcinogen meropakan virus infection.
4. Nutrient deficiency
There are several studies which concluded that folic acid deficiency may increase the risk of mild and moderate dysplasia, and may also increase the risk of cervical cancer in women whose diet low beta-carotene and retinol (vitamin A).
5. Chronic trauma to the cervix as labor, infections, and chronic irritation
In the precancerous phase, often no symptoms or signs typical. However, sometimes symptoms can be found as follows:A. Whitish or watery discharge from the vagina.2. Bleeding after intercourse which then continues into the abnormal bleeding.3. Incidence of bleeding after the menopause4. In the invasive phase of the discharge can be yellowish, odorless and can be mixed with blood.5. Symptoms arise when there is bleeding chronic anemia.6. Pelvic pain (pelvic) or in the lower abdomen when there is inflammation of the pelvis. When pain occurs in the waist down, the possibility of hydronephrosis. In addition, pain can also occur in other places.7. In later stages, the body becomes emaciated due to malnutrition, edema legs, bladder irritation and shaft of the lower intestine (rectum), vesicovaginal or rectovaginal fistula formation, or the symptoms arise due to distant metastases.
Like most cancers, these cancers can also experience the spread (metastasis). The spread of cervical cancer are of three kinds, namely:1 Through the lymph vessels (limfogen) to the other nodes.2 Through the blood vessels (hematogenous)3 The spread directly into the parametrium, uterine corpus, vagina, bladder and rectum.
Of distant spread through the blood vessels and lymph vessels, especially the lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes and supraklavikuler, bones and liver. The spread to the lungs causing cough, coughing up blood, and sometimes chest pain. Sometimes accompanied by supraclavicular lymph node enlargement, especially the left.
PREVENT MUCH BETTER THAN TREAT
In cases of cervical cancer deaths occur because most patients who seek treatment are already in an advanced stage. In fact, with the discovery of this cancer at an early stage, the possibility of this disease can be cured by almost 100%. In fact, cervical cancer is actually preventable. According to the OBGYN from New York University Medical Centre, dr. Steven R. Goldstein, the key is early detection.
Approximately 90-99 percent of cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). The virus can be transferred through sexual contact and can be present in different variations. There are several cases of HPV virus that blow over, and there is progress to cervical cancer, which is sufficient to threaten the health of this one woman's anatomy.
One of the problems arising from HPV infections are often no symptoms or visible signs of the eye. According to the study of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, nearly half of women infected with HPV had no obvious symptoms. And moreover, people who are infected do not know that they can transmit HPV to other healthy people.
Now, the 'weapon' best to prevent this cancer is a form called a Pap smear screening, and screening is very effective. Pap smear is a cytological examination which was introduced by Dr. GN Papanicolaou in 1943 to determine the presence of malignancy (cancer) with a microscope. This examination is easily done, quick and painless. The problem is, many women who do not want to undergo this examination, and cervical cancer is usually even occur in women who have never checked out or would not perform this examination. And if the women want to do this examination, the disease could someday disappear, like polio.
Pap smear is recommended to be done by the women regularly once a year in a row in three years when it is sexually active and at least 21 years old. When the results of three consecutive years of normal, further testing may be done every three years. Goldstein also added that the cervix is a specialized organ that is easy to determine through a pap smear, biopsy, laser and can be seen directly, unlike the lungs that are hidden in the body. So if the pap smear is quite global, in the sense that all women in the world is aware of the importance of this examination, means no more excuses for cervical cancer later in life.